# Friday, April 07, 2006

[This is part of a running series on the Didache. See the introductory post for more information -- RWB]

Phrasing/Translation

Ὁδοί δύο εἰσί,
There are two ways,
   μία τῆς ζωῆς
   one of life
   καὶ μία τοῦ θανάθου,
   and one of death;
      διαφορὰ δὲ πολλὴ μεταξὺ τῶν δύο ὁδῶν.
      there is great difference between the two ways.
Ἡ μὲν οὖν ὁδὸς τῆς ζωῆς ἐστιν αὕτη·
The way of life is this:
   πρῶτον ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεὸν τὸν ποιήσαντά σε
   First, love the Lord who made you;
   δεύτερον τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν·
   Second, [love] your neighbor as yourself;
      πάντα δὲ ὅσα ἐὰν θελήσῃς μὴ γίνεσθαί σοι καὶ σὺ ἄλλῳ μὴ ποίει.
      all that you wouldn't wish to have done to you, do not do to others.
Τούτων δέ τῶν λόγων ἡ διδαχή ἐστιν αὕτη·
The teaching of these words is this:
   εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμῖν
   Bless those that curse you,
   καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὑμῶν
   pray on behalf of your enemies
   νηστεύετε δὲ ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς·
   and fast on behalf of those who persecute you.
ποία γὰρ χάρις ἐὰν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς;
For what benefit is it if we love those who love us?
   οὐχὶ καὶ τὰ ἔθνη τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;
   Do not the even the Gentiles do this?
   ὑμεῖς δὲ ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς μισοῦντας ὑμᾶς
   But love those who detest you
      καὶ οὐχ ἕξετε ἐχθρόν.
      and you will not have an enemy.
ἀπέχου τῶν σαρκικῶν καὶ σωματικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν·
Refrain from fleshly and bodily lusts.
   ἐάν τίς σοι δῷ ῥάπισμα εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα
   If someone slaps you on the right cheek,
      στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην καὶ ἔσῃ τέλειος·
      turn the other one to him and you will be perfect.
   ἐὰν ἀγγαρεύσῃ σέ τις μίλιον ἕν
   If someone compels you to go for one mile,
      ὕπαγε μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ δύο·
      go with him for two.
   ἐὰν ἄρῃ τις τὸ ἱμάτιόν σου
   If someone takes away your cloak,
      δὸς αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα·
      give him your shirt too.
   ἐὰν λάβῃ τις ἀπὸ σοῦ τὸ σόν
   If someone takes from you what is yours,
      μὴ ἀπαίτει·
      do not demand repayment;
         οὐδὲ γὰρ δύνασαι.
         for you are not able.
παντὶ τῷ αἰοῦντί σε
To all that ask of you,
   δίδου καὶ μὴ ἀπαίτει·
   give and do not demand repayment;
      πᾶσι γὰρ θέλει δίδοσθαι ὁ πατὴρ
      for the Father desires to give them gifts
         ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων χαρισμάτων.
         from his own beneficence.
μακάριος ὁ διδοὺς κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν·
Blessed is the one who gives according to the command;
   ἀθῷος γάρ ἐστιν.
   for he is without guilt.
οὐαὶ τῷ λαμβάνοντι·
Woe to the one who receives;
   εἰ μὲν γὰρ χρείαν ἔχων λαμβάνει τις ἀθῷος ἔσται·
   for if anyone having need receives, he is guiltless;
   ὁ δὲ μὴ χρείαν ἔχων δώσει δίκην,
   but anyone having no need will give testimony:
      ἱνατί ἔλαβε καὶ εἰς τί·
      Why has he received, and for what purpose?
      ἐν συνοχῇ δὲ γενόμενος ἐξετασθήσεται περὶ ὧν ἔπραξε
      He will be put into prison, interrogated concerning what he did
         καὶ οὐκ ἐξελεύσεται ἐκεῖθεν
         and he will not be set free from there
            μέχρις οὗ ἀποδῷ τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην.
            until he has paid back the last cent.
ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τούτου δὲ εἴρηται·
And concerning this it has also been said:
    Ἱδρωσάτω ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη σου εἰς τὰς χεῖράς σου
   Your charitable gift must sweat in your hands
      μέχρις ἂν γνῷς τίνι δῷς.
      until you know to whom to give it.

Notes

The above groups are made largely based on sentence boundaries in Lake's edition. They do not necessarily align with established verse boundaries. I should also say that I'm simply doing a relatively quick glance at the text, thinking about how it was intended to be understood. This is not a critical study -- not by any means. Also, I don't consider the Didache to be on par with Scripture, but I do think the Didache offers insight regarding how Scripture was interpreted, taught and applied in these very early days of the church. This is where my interest lies.

The first group serves as an introduction to the section of the "Two Ways", which runs from here through chapter 6. The binary image of one way leading to life and another leading to death is common. Most of the focus of this first large section is on the way of life (chaps 1-4).

The second group begins to explain the first. If there is a way that leads to life, what is it? The way of life is summed up in the same way that Jesus summed up the whole of the law: Love the Lord your God, and love your neighbor as yourself.

The third group expands the teaching of the second group, giving practical advice and application as to how to go about loving the Lord and loving neighbors. When folks hurl invective at you, bless them. Pray for those who work against you. Fast for those who persecute you. This is really three ways of saying the same thing: earnestly desire the salvation of those who are opposed to you. Fast and pray for their souls. All of these actions are testified to in the New Testament; the Didachist is providing instruction on how to live according to those principles, tying the generic statements (Love God, love your neighbor) with specific application (desire salvation for those working against you).

The fourth group continues expounding on how to love, providing more application. As well, these are based in the New Testament (largely from the sermon on the mount). The idea is to be in control of one's own actions; the natural response is likely not the correct response. Work to override it and be in control. If slapped on the face, instead of striking back one is to turn the other cheek. If conscripted for some sort of service, excel in your work and provide more than was expected of you. If something is taken, give more than is asked and do not pursue repayment.

The fifth group sums up the fourth group. When asked, we are to give with no expectation of repayment. What we have is the Lord's, and if the Lord desires to reallocate his resources from his goodness, who are we to question it? We should give and be grateful.

The sixth group continues and transitions from the positive side of obedience (those who obey are blessed) to the negative side.

The seventh group is the negative side: Woe to those who receive needlessly. The important realization is that whether requesting, giving or receiving, we will be held responsible for our actions.

The eighth group continues the summation. Because we are responsible, we are to give responsibly. We are stewards of God's resources, and we should give freely. But we should not give lackadaisically. Consider available options for the gift, and give according to the discerned will of God.

Next: Didache 2. No idea when that will be.

Post Author: rico
Friday, April 07, 2006 12:30:41 PM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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I'm finally beginning a series of random, unscheduled posts on the Didache. I'm less interested in textual history (e.g. Niederwimmer and his endless discussion of textual history and parallels on the "Two Ways" literature) and more interested what the Didache says. So if you're looking for discussion on textual history, parallels, musings on source documents, how the Didachist might have edited his source into the Didache, and stuff like that ... well, read Niederwimmer's Didache volume in the Hermeneia commentary series.

Me, I'll just be reading the document and blogging about what I read. I hope to do the following for each chapter:

  • Translation. OK, this really isn't a from-scratch translation, I'm reading Lake's edition of the Greek and English. My "translation" is really just working over Lake's stuff and rico-tizing it. Most times that will include wholesale changes, other times (when I'm really confused) it will be a simple modernization of the language.
  • Phrasing Breakdown. I hope to do simple phrasing breakdown (some might call it "sentence phrasing" or "block diagramming") of the Greek. This is largely based on my intuition. I don't claim to have the last word on this and realize that others would break things in other ways. I largely use punctuation of the printed Greek editon as guide, along with examining conjunctions, prepositional phrases, and other natural (to me) breaking points in the text. This produces a simple tabbed "hierarchy" that I'll base my notes on.
  • Notes. I'll write whatever comes to mind based on how I worked through the text. Nothing systematic here, particularly since this will be work done over time and really only taking the current chapter (and perhaps some previous context) into account.

Sound good? Ok. Let's get started. For some background, check out EarlyChristianWritings.com on the Didache.

Update (2006-04-07): Thanks to Mike Aquilina (The Way of the Fathers) for linking to this little series of mine. Also note his Introduction to the Didache.

As of March 29, 2007, this series is complete.

Post Author: rico
Friday, April 07, 2006 11:37:17 AM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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I took today off and went for a quick kayak paddle on Lake Whatcom. It was awesome. It was calm, relatively temperate, and I think I was the only boat of any kind on the lake. Now, reality has set in. I really need to mow my lawn this afternoon. Take the good with the bad, right?

I was going to take pictures but I forgot my camera. Maybe next time. More info on my kayak is on my personal web site.

Before I mow the lawn, though ... maybe ... look for a post on the Didache.

Post Author: rico
Friday, April 07, 2006 11:23:30 AM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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# Thursday, April 06, 2006

Just a quick aside --

When I first read about the Didache (in, say, 1995) I had never heard the word pronounced before and I didn't know anyone who knew how to pronounce it.

I'm almost afraid to admit this -- but the only word I knew (please remember, I'm a child of the 1980s) that even remotely looked like "Didache" was "Jordache". You see, they both end in "-dache". So that informed my pronunciation of "Didache".

(Why didn't I think of "headache"? I can't say. I just didn't even though it would've informed my pronunciation almost as erroneously as "Jordache" did. I blame Brooke Shields.)

Realization that "Didache" was a transliteration and actually came from the Greek, that the 'ch' is hard, and the 'e' is pronounced, came later. I only saw citations in passing, not realizing the document in reference was Greek.

Hey, it was 10 years ago. Cut me some slack!

All this to say: I think I'm going to start blogging on the Didache. Nothing (too) regular, but I'll start posting nonetheless.

Post Author: rico
Thursday, April 06, 2006 6:16:23 PM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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I've blogged a few times in the past about a Manuscript Copying Project whereby a small group of folks each copy out, by hand, editions of Second Timothy in Greek from a common source. Here are the relevant links to previous articles:

To those who are out there who have committed to doing a copy, I apologize for being silent on this for so long. I've realized that I've committed to too many side projects. I'm still very interested in doing this, but I also need to postpone it. I will likely begin thinking about this one again in the fall (so, September/October).

If you've committed to this project in the past, could you just drop me an email confirming that you're still interested if you haven't sent me something yet?

With the wedding coming up (July 22!), a paper for SBL in the pipeline, and my dabblings in the Pastoral Epistles still consuming mental bandwith (and all that on top of my work at Logos), something has to give. This is the easiest to postpone and remove from my immediate thoughts, so ...

Don't worry, I'll be back on it around the time I get into Second Timothy in my work on the Pastoral Epistles.

Post Author: rico
Thursday, April 06, 2006 9:08:31 AM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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# Tuesday, April 04, 2006

Browsing around, I came across the Coptic Language entry on the Wikipedia. If you are confused by the Coptic dialects and subdialects that are cited in the UBS and NA apparatuses with versional evidence, the article gives some brief info that should help clarify.

Note also the article on the Coptic Alphabet.

This is all doubly cool because I'd been looking for some brief information on Old Nubian after seeing references to Nubian in some stuff Metzger had written. Who'd've thunk that the Wikipedia would have an article on that too?

Update (2006-04-06): Stephen C. Carlson with some Coptic-related Gospel o' Judas bloggin'. Note he points at a PDF file that is a transcription of the Coptic that is the Gospel of Judas. And the English is available too.

Update II (2006-04-07): If you're interested in typing Coptic in Unicode, then the Logos Coptic Keyboard is for you. (alternately, try here for Greek, Hebrew, Syriac and Coptic keyboards!) Note that this is considered beta software, though it uses standard Windows keyboard stuff. Also -- if  you have any suggestions as to a good, non-ornamental unicode Coptic font, please leave some suggestions (with URLs if available) in the comments. Thanks!

Post Author: rico
Tuesday, April 04, 2006 8:59:01 AM (Pacific Daylight Time, UTC-07:00) 

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# Saturday, April 01, 2006

Loren Rosson (The Busybody) has posted the Biblical Studies Carnival IV, his leisurely jaunt through biblioblogdom's March posts. Loren even saw fit to mention a few of my own posts amongst the scads of bibliobloggin' he was able to summarise so nicely.

Excellent, Loren. Thanks for keeping us all informed and pointing out a few new blogs too!

Post Author: rico
Saturday, April 01, 2006 12:19:23 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00) 

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# Thursday, March 30, 2006

I just received word that my paper proposal for the 2006 SBL meeting in Washington DC was accepted. Here's the preliminary abstract as submitted.

Program Unit: Biblical Greek Language and Linguistics

Paper Title: Word Groups, Head Terms and Modifiers in the Pastoral Epistles: Insight for Questions of Style?

OpenText.org have completed a preliminary syntactic analysis of the Greek New Testament. One level of their analysis is the Word Group level. A word group is a group of words that consists of, at minimum, a head term. It also contains any terms that modify the head term and additionally specifies the type of modification as that of definer, qualifier, relator or specifier.

Heretofore, stylistic analysis has been largely bound to the word level, tracking criteria such as word usage and morphology. The OpenText.org Word Group analysis allows for stylistic analysis of the corpus at a different level. Does head term and modifier usage offer any insight for comparative studies of the Pastoral Epistles and the generally accepted Paulines? This paper will examine word group usage data for both the accepted Paulines and the Pastoral Epistles, and will offer preliminary comparisons between the results where results may offer insight for questions of style.

Some of the work (OK, most of the work) I have yet to do; so I don't have too much to offer in the way of juicy tidbits. The basic thought is that since there is now a corpus available that is syntactically annotated, are there things within such an annotated corpus that would offer insight when examining a text for issues of style? I have a few things I want to check out. The paper will (hopefully) offer some ideas of what sorts of things can be now be aggregated, and which of those might be helpful. Or it could be a bust, and I'll conclude that quantifying style, even with syntactic data, is a near impossible task. We'll see.

Note that the setup of the Biblical Language and Linguistics section is a little different than most sessions; I will have 10 minutes of time to present in which I will summarise the paper, but will be available for 30 minutes of "open discussion" time after the presentation. The open discussion is somewhat informal; presenters break to different corners of the room, and anyone who wants to talk further with a presenter then mills about, pursuing further the things they're interested in.

Should be a fun time. Hope to see you all there.

Update (2006-03-31): Stephen C. Carlson (Hypotyposeis) informs us that he'll present two papers in DC, one in the Synoptics section and one in New Testament Textual Criticism section. They both sound fun; hopefully I have no conflicts and will be able to attend Stephen's sessions.

Update (2006-03-31): Mark Goodacre (NT Gateway Weblog) posts news of a paper he'll present on Paul and Galatians. He (and Stephen C. Carlson as well, I might add) note several other bibliobloggers who have posted notes about accepted papers, including Jim Davila (PaleoJudaica), Michael Bird (Euangelion), and Adam Kotsko (The Weblog, with which I'm not familiar). Add in Sean the Baptist (sorry, Sean, can't locate your full name on the blog) to round out the group. Anyone else?

Post Author: rico
Thursday, March 30, 2006 1:46:02 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00) 

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